There are two distinct styles of rock shoe construction, board lasted and slip lasted. The ‘last’ is the foot shaped model around which a shoe is built.
In board lasted construction, an insole, also called the ‘board’, is attached to the bottom of the last and the uppers are wrapped around it. The midsole, rand, and sole are then added to the bottom of the uppers.
Slip lasting involves stitching the upper into a sock and slipping it over the last. Stiffness is achieved by adding a midsole of varying materials and thickness. The rand and finally the sole are applied to complete the shoe.